Esquimalt lagoon is an important stopover for birds migrating on the Pacific Flyway, a major north-south route of travel for migratory birds that extends from Alaska to Patagonia. Many types of birds flock to feed on the mudflats at the mouth of Millstream Creek.
Esquimalt Lagoon is a saltwater Lagoon rich in wildlife. The shallow lagoon is enclosed by a sand and gravel barrier spit, and tidal channel at the northeast end connects the lagoon to the ocean. A federally designated Migratory Bird Sanctuary encompasses the lagoon and adjacent lands.
Archaeological sites around the lagoon indicate the region has been used by First Nations for thousands of years. Intertidal clam beds at the entrance of the lagoon were extensively harvested by ancestors of the Esquimalt and Songhees First Nations.